Pine Wood : A Guide to Its Properties, Types, and Uses

    pine wood guide

    Pine is a softwood received from coniferous trees and is found in many locations around the world, including Europe, the US, India, Canada, Mexico, China, and others. Pine has more than 170 species, which differ greatly in terms of properties and appearance.

    Pine is a strong wood with moderate durability. It is widely available and costs much less than similar woods, which is why pine wood is favoured for a large variety of projects ranging from furniture to construction and many more.

    Due to its incredible properties, excellent looks and wide & low-cost availability, pine is a wood of choice for a lot of woodworkers & merchants all over the world.

    Physical Properties of Pine Wood

    Pine wood properties

    Pine has many species, of which Eastern White Pine is the most commonly found and used around the world. It originates in Eastern North America and has a light brown heartwood.

    Pine trees are about 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall and have an average trunk diameter of 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m). The average dried weight of pine is about 25 lbs/ft3 (400 kg/m3) and it has a Janka rating of 380 lbf (1,690 N), which indicates that pine is neither very hard nor very heavy. Other properties of pine wood are as follows:

    Color & Grain: Pine heartwood is light brown and the sapwood is almost white or yellowish. The heartwood sometimes has a reddish hue and its colour may darken with age. Pine has a straight grain with a medium, even texture.

    Durability: Pine wood is not naturally durable and has moderate resistance to decay, though it is often treated before use in outdoor applications.

    Workability: Pine is a softwood with a straight grain, which is why it is very easy to work with. It cuts, glues, mails, and finishes well.

    Availability & Price: Pine is harvested across plantations in many parts of the world and is generally available at a moderate to low price in the UK and other regions of Europe.

    Technical Properties of Pine Wood

    • Modulus of Rupture: 8,600 lbf/in2 (59.3 MPa)
    • Elastic Modulus: 1,240,000 lbf/in2 (8.55 GPa)
    • Crushing Strength: 4,800 lbf/in2 (33.1 MPa)
    • Shrinkage: Radial: 2.1%, Tangential: 6.1%, Volumetric: 8.2%, T/R Ratio: 2.9

    Types of Pine Wood

    There are over a hundred species of pine, all of which can be broadly classified into the following four types of pine:

    1. White pine
    2. Southern yellow pine
    3. Western yellow pine
    4. Red pine

    White Pine

    White Pine

    This pine species in this category have an almost white or light brownish heartwood. The sawn wood has distinct figures on its surface. The timber has low weight and density, good durability, fine texture, and is moderately strong. The small resin canals in White Pine are responsible for the figure pattern on its sawn surface. White pine is resistant to swelling and splitting.

    The most popular species of white pine include sugar pine, eastern white pine, western white pine, and limber pine.

    Southern Yellow Pine

    southern yellow pine

    Southern Yellow Pine can be distinguished from other pine variants in terms of strength and density, as it is stronger and denser. The species in this category of pine have reddish-brown heartwood, which is moderately durable.

    The most common species of Southern Yellow Pine are shortleaf pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine.

    Western Yellow Pine

    western yellow pine

    This type of pine is harder than white pine but less strong than Southern Yellow Pine. These species of pine are moderately hard and have an even grain, which makes them easy to work with. The two major species are Lodgepole pine and Ponderosa pine.

    Red Pine

    Red Pine

    The heartwood of the red pine species is reddish brown while the sapwood is yellowish white. Red pine woods are commonly used in construction and for making cabin logs, poles, railway ties, etc. They have a straight grain with a medium texture.

    Uses of Pine Wood

    Pine is an extremely versatile wood and is used for many projects and applications.

    Pine is used for making inexpensive furniture and often as a cheaper alternative to oak and other hardwoods for building interior furniture items such as beds, tables, chairs, cabinets, and more.

    Treated pine is resistant to moisture and insect attacks and suitable for outdoor uses including flooring, outdoor furniture, boatbuilding, cladding, decking, etc.

    Pine is affordable and widely available, which is why it is also used for many general wood applications such as boxes, crates, interior millwork, etc.

    Pine is easy to cut and carve, which makes it suitable for carving and for building decorations, mouldings and other interior/designer products.

    Other uses of pine include plywood, veneer, turned objects, toys, structural timber, poles, flooring, panels, sleepers, pulp and paper, brushware, and others.

    Advantages & Disadvantages of Pine Wood


    • Pine is a softwood that is generally cheaper than most hardwoods
    • It is globally and widely available and can be easily sourced/imported
    • Pine is easy to work with
    • It is lightweight
    • Pine can be used without treatment for many applications
    • It has good elasticity
    • Pine has an excellent natural appearance and is perfect for interior applications
    • Pine is moderately durable and is resistant to shrinking & swelling


    • Pine wood is not very strong or durable
    • It sometimes has large knots & knotholes throughout the body, which might reduce the price and usability of the wood.
    • Common pine may often have defects
    • Pine can be easily damaged, scratched and dented
    • It cannot be used outside without treatment

    Where & How to Buy Pine Wood at the Best Price online

    Pine is a very popular wood that is used in almost all parts of the world, including the UK. Though pine is not widely harvested or naturally grown in the country, most of the UK’s pine needs are met through imports from other countries. If you are looking to buy pine wood/timber in bulk in the UK, contact us at White Knight Consulting Pvt. Ltd.

    WKC Consulting is a wood manufacturer, merchant and importer/exporter that sells high-quality hardwoods and softwoods around the world, including countries like Australia, Canada, Vietnam, Germany, UAE, South Africa, Turkey and many more. We deal in 40+ species of sustainable wood, including wood products such as timber and plywood. All our wood is sourced from responsible natives and processed by skilled woodworkers with love and care to produce the best products that clients like you deserve.

    As a wholesale supplier of wood in the UK, we can provide the best quality Pine wood, timber & products at the most competitive rates with doorstep delivery all over the country. You can order pine timber in standard sizes or ask us to deliver pine in custom sizes for your project. Contact us for a quote today.

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